Manners and Customs in the United States 美国的礼仪和习惯

Table Manners
餐 桌 礼 仪

现在列出一些与美国人一起用餐时的建议。这些建议无论对在家里用餐或者在餐厅用餐都是有用的。如果你刚来到美国,就遇到美国人请你到家里晚宴,一个比较礼貌的做法是带一瓶葡萄酒,或者一盒巧克力,或者你从国内带来的一个小礼品,给请你晚宴的主人。这样的小礼品不必昂贵,只要表达一些意思就好。美国人都对礼品的意义看得比礼品的价格重得多。

 

  1. 在用餐的时候,将餐巾放置在腿上是个合宜的做法。如果你不是双手都拿餐具的话,那个不拿餐具的手也应该放在自己的腿上。如果与你一起吃饭的人还不是你的哥儿们,不要把手肘放在桌子上。在各种场合,应该都不能把手肘放在桌子上。
  2. 大部分美国人会用刀和叉来切开食品。就是用他们惯用的手来切和把食品送入嘴里。就是说,如果我是习惯用右手的,当我吃牛排的时候,我就用右手来切牛排。当我把牛排切好了以后,我就会把刀从右手放下,换成拿叉子,然后开始吃牛排。在正式的宴席中,最好是一个手拿刀,一个手拿叉,切出一块就吃一块。不要把整块牛排全都切成小块,然后再吃。
  3. 有些食品是可以用手直接拿着吃的。通常我们是用手直接拿着汉堡包、比萨饼、三明治,和其他的一些食品吃的。但是在任何一个正式的宴会中,我们都不会用手直接拿着吃。当然,正式的宴会里也不会有汉堡包或者比萨饼这样的食品,就是在一个正式的餐厅里也不会提供这类的食品。
  4. 美国人在吃饭的时候是很安静的,就是吃东西的时候不发出任何的声音。如果没有闭上嘴就在嚼食品的话,一般都认为这样的做法是粗鲁和没有礼貌的。在嘴里嚼食品的时候,应该闭上嘴,这样就不会有任何不雅的声音发出来。在用餐的时候,千万不要打嗝或者让食品从嘴里掉出来。但是一旦发生了,就立刻需要致歉。但是不必多言,只要说“I am so sorry”或者“Please excuse me”就可以了。美国人认为在餐桌上发出吃喝的声音,比如喝汤或者喝饮料的声音,也是粗鲁和没有礼貌的。
  5. 还有一个值得注意的是美国人对客人的一个习惯说法。就是到我家,就像到你自己家一样你自己动手吧,这两句话。这两句话可能对东方人不习惯,甚至感到不尊重客人。但是对美国人来说,对你说这两句话却是对你很看重的话。如果你到一家美国人家里做客,如果他们对你说,你自己动手吧,这表示他们已经把你看为他们自己家里的人了。这就是说,你可以随便进出他们的厨房,为你自己制作你喜欢的饮料,或者拿一点你喜欢的点心吃,诸如此类。当然,当你第一次到这个家里做客的时候,他们大概不会这样对你说,而是好好伺候你,因为对你还不是很熟,说话就留有余地。但是当你第二次到他们家的时候,你就很有可能会听到这样的话了。这样你就知道他们对你真是相见恨晚了。

讨论问题:

  1. 在这篇文章里有哪些对你来说是新奇或者感到特别的地方?
  2. 什么是美国人必须知道的中国餐桌礼仪?
  3. 有哪些事情在中国的餐桌上是切忌的?
  4. 如果一个美国人到中国人的家里做客,应该带什么样的礼物给主人?

Here are some suggestions about dining with Americans. These will be true whether you are eating with them in their home or at a restaurant. If you are invited to an American’s home for dinner it is polite to bring a wine, a box of chocolates, or something from your country as a gift for your host. It does not need to be expensive. Americans appreciate the thought of the gift more than the price tag.

  1. It is considered proper to place your napkin in your lap while you eat. If you are not eating with both hands then your unused hand should also rest in your lap. Do not put your elbows on the table unless you are comfortable with your hosts as friends. In all formal settings your elbows should remain off the table.

  2. Most of the time Americans will cut their food with a knife and fork. They will use their dominate hand to both cut and eat. So, if I am right-handed and I’m eating a steak, I would use my knife to cut my steak with my right hand. After the steak is cut, I’d put the knife down and take my fork in my right-hand to eat. For formal dinners it is best to cut each piece at a time and eat it. Do not cut the entire steak up all at once.
  3. There are some foods which are o.k. to eat with your hands. We generally eat hamburgers, pizza, sandwiches and a variety of other foods with our hands. The only time we would not use our hands is if we are in a formal restaurant and having a formal meal. However, hamburgers and pizza are rarely ever served at a formal dinner or in a formal restaurant.
  4.  Americans eat much more quietly than other cultures. It is considered rude and offensive to eat with your mouth open. When you chew your food keep your lips together and chew so that there is not disturbing sounds coming from your mouth. If possible, never belch at the table. If you do so immediately make apologies. “I’m so sorry.” Or “please, excuse me” is sufficient. It is also considered rude to slurp your soup or loud sipping of your drink at the table.
  5. One last strange custom among Americans is found with the phrase, “make yourself at home” or “help yourself.” Although this may at first seem rude to you it is actually a very good thing in America. If you are invited to an American’s home and they tell you to “help yourself” they are saying, “You are one of us, like family.” This is an invitation to go into the kitchen and prepare yourself a drink, a snack or whatever. If you’re a first time visitor to their home they will probably not tell you this. They will serve you and be more reserved. However, the next time you arrive at their home you will most likely hear those words and you will know you are truly welcomed.

QUESTIONS:

  1. What is interesting or strange to you from this article?
  2. What should Americans know about eating with Chinese people?
  3. What should Americans never do at a Chinese table?
  4. If Americans are invited to dinner at a Chinese's home what should they give as a host or hostess gift?

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