Medical Missions in China 传教士在中国所办的医院

中国第一家西医医院是广州博济医院,更广为人知的广州真光眼科医院。它由彼得·伯驾(Peter Parker,1804-1888)于1835年11月4日在广州一家外商独资工厂附近的十三行(绿豌豆街)7号成立。在清朝(1644-1911),广州是唯一可以在欧洲和中国商人之间进行贸易的地方。这唯一的贸易港在第一次鸦片战争(1839-1842)之后也就不复存在了,因为清政府阻止外国人,主要是英国人,走私鸦片的行动。因为战争失败,清政府不仅让英国人恢复了在中国境内的贩毒活动,也为向外商开放辽阔的中国市场,并让传教士进入中国铺平了道路。

在过去的一百七十六年里,中国第一家西式医院广州眼科医院幸存下来,并且蓬勃发展。它已成为全国最大,最负盛名的眼科研究机构之一。目前,该中心有724名工作人员,其中包括170名眼科医生。

德博拉·玛蒂尔·杜(Deborah Matilda Douw 1835-1911)资助并参加了在中国的传教工作。 1900年,她被义和团抓获。 1869年,杜女士代表美国妇女联合会宣教协会海外宣教部(WUMS)首次访问中国。她与另外两名女性一起去北京为女孩开设寄宿学校。 1881年,该任务被移至上海,当时在该设施中增加了一所日间的女子学校。 WUMS是首批允许单身女性进行这种传教工作的组织之一。这些学校发挥了重要作用,特别是在不适合男性传教士工作的情况,甚至在禁止男性传教士工作的领域,可以由女性传教士来为女性服务。

Douw多次回到中国继续工作,并与美国妇女联合会传教协会一起在上海为福音工作组织了一个名为Douw基金会的基金。这基金会支持了两个传教士,一所圣经学校和女教师们。她还资助她在北京的基督教联盟机构。此外,Douw资助在北京长老会医院建造一个女性病房,并为在那里的一位女医生支付费用。 1900年,当义和团运动的时候,她与其他传教士被困在外国使馆内。虽然他们最终由联合的国际部队获救,她返回美国,但她从未完全从这次经历中恢复过来,并于1911年去世。

随着时间的推移,19世纪中国医院的扩张和发展越来越被广泛接受。到1937年,中国有254所教会医院,但其中一半以上最终因第二次世界大战期间的日本爆炸事件或第二次甲午战争或中国内战而遭到破坏。第二次世界大战后,这些医院中的大部分至少部分得到了康复,最终转移到中华人民共和国政府的控制之下,但仍然作为医院。


讨论问题:

  1. 这篇文章是不是让你感到一些新的内容?

  2. 你家乡有很多医院吗?这些医院已经有了多少年的历史?近几年他们是成长了,缩小他们的规模?

  3. 你是否知道有关这些医院的任何人或者被医治者?能不能把你知道的告诉大家吗?

  4. 你有没有听说过在你的国家里教会做过什么样工作(过去或现在)?


The first Western-style hospital in China was the Canton Hospital, better known as the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton. It was founded by Peter Parker (1804–1888), at Factory No. 7, Fung-taihong San-taulan (Green Pea) Street, a site near the foreign-owned factories in Canton (now known as Guangzhou), on November 4, 1835. During the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911), Canton was the only place trade could be undertaken between European and Chinese merchants. The trade monopoly ended after the first Opium War (1839–1842), which had begun in response to the attempt of the Qing government to halt the illegal smuggling of opium by foreign, mainly English, ships in Canton. The failures of the Qing government during the war not only allowed the English to resume drug trafficking within China but also paved the way for the opening of lucrative Chinese markets to business people and of Chinese society to missionaries.

During the past 176 years, the first Western-style hospital in China, the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton, has survived and thrived; it has become the leading ophthalmic institute in the country and one of the largest and most prestigious in the world. Currently, 724 staff members, including 170 ophthalmologists, work in the center.

Deborah Matilda Douw (1835-1911) funded and took part in missionary work in China. In 1900 she was caught up in the Boxer Rebellion. In 1869, Douw made her first visit to China on behalf of the Women's Union Missionary Society of America for Heathen Lands (WUMS). She went to Beijing with two other women to open a boarding school for girls. In 1881 the mission was moved to Shanghai at which time a day-school was added to the facility. WUMS was one of the first organizations to permit single women to carry out this type of missionary work. These schools played an important role, working with women in situations where the presence of male missionaries would be inappropriate or forbidden.

Douw returned several times to China to continue her work, and she set up a fund with the Woman’s Union Missionary Society of America for evangelistic work in Shanghai called the Douw Foundation. This supported two missionaries, a bible school and women teachers. She also funded her own Christian Alliance Mission in Beijing. In addition, Douw funded the building of a female pavilion at the Peking Presbyterian Hospital and paid for the attendance of a female doctor. In 1900 she was at the mission during the Boxer Rebellion when she and other missionaries were trapped in the foreign legations. Though they were eventually rescued by a combined international force of troops and she returned to America, she never fully recovered from this experience and died in 1911.

With time the expansion and growth of hospitals in China during the 1800s became more widely accepted. By 1937 there were 254 mission hospitals in China, but more than half of these were eventually destroyed by Japanese bombing during World War II or otherwise due to the Second Sino-Japanese War or the Chinese Civil War. After World War II most of these hospitals were at least partially rehabilitated, and eventually passed to the control of the Government of the Peoples' Republic of China, but are still functioning as hospitals.


Discussion Questions

  1. What was interesting to you about this article?

  2. Are there many hospitals in your hometown? How old are they and have they grown, shrunk, or reduced their size in recent years?

  3. Do you have any historical figures or famous medical examiners who you can tell us about?

  4. Have you ever heard about mission work happening (past or currently) in your country?

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