Words and Their Stories: Baseball Terms 英文中的棒球词汇

棒球是一项美国人所酷爱的运动。如果看到英语里有很多语言的表达是从棒球中演变而来就不以为怪了。但是在讲诉这些以前,让我先来说一说棒球。

在棒球比赛中,每个棒球队有九位棒球队员上场。一个队的投手把球投向另一队的打击手,而打击手就应当打击投手投过来的球。如果打击手没有打到这个投过来的球,那就称为“Strike”,表示好球的意思。如果打击手得了三个好球,他就失去了这一局的击球的机会,这被称为“out”表示出局的意思。打击手还有一种情况也会出局的,就是他虽然打击到球了,但是在球还没着地之前就被对方队员接住了。但是,如果打击手打击了球,球也没有在着地之前被对方球员接住,他就要尽力跑到场地上的四个垒中的一个或者多个。如果打击手把球出球场的界限,或者打到球场以外,他就可以跑满四个垒。这样的击球称为 “home run”也就是全垒打

现在我们可以来谈谈棒球术语在日常生活中的应用。如果说一个人是on the ball,就是说他很有才能或者办事能力强。但是如果说这个人扔出了一个curve ball(拐弯球),就是说他诡计多端或者他很狡猾。如果说某人steps up to the plate,意思是他上场了,也就是他准备干活了。而pinch hitter就是代替别人干活的意思。

如果说一个人strikes out或者go down swinging,就是表示他想干一件事,但是失败了。有的时候我们也会称他是“three strikes and  you are out”。然而,如果说一个人hit a home run或者hit it out of the park,那就表示他干得很出色

有时因为没有时间考虑,必须很快地提供一些信息,那我们就会说,“right off the bat”。如果有人在一件事上干得很出色,你就可以说他是“batting one thousand”。

如果我说我要与你touch base,意思是我会不时地与你讨论我们计划要执行的事项。如果我说我touched all the bases,意思是我已经把该做的事都做好了。如果我说我covered my bases,这就表示我一切都已经准备就绪了。但是如果说某人way off base,意思是他没干对,甚至有欺骗不道德的行为了。如果说到一个人out in left field,那就意思他有强力的个人见解

如果我想卖我的车,但是又不知道应该卖什么价格。当有人来问我要卖多少钱的时候,我会用a ballpark figure或者a ballpark estimate来表示大概的价格

如果一个人出了一个接近我想要的价,我可以说这个价格是in the ballpark。但是如果我说,We are not in the same ballpark,这就表示我们的看法相差很大。

当情况完全改变了的时候,我们会用that is a whole new ballgame来表示我们得从新开始了。


讨论问题:


1.  你是否很熟悉棒球?如果是的话,请告诉我们你是怎样才对棒球熟悉的?
2.  你是否打过棒球?在哪里打的?是在什么时候打的?
3.  有哪一些棒球术语你会用在你的英语对话中?

Baseball is America’s national sport.  So it is not unusual that many popular expressions come from baseball.  But first, let me explain a little about the game.

Each baseball team has nine players.  The pitcher of one team throws the ball to a batter from the other team.  The batter attempts to hit the ball.  If he misses, it is called a strike.  If a batter gets three strikes, he loses his turn at bat and is called out.  The batter also is out if he hits the ball in the air and an opposing player catches it.  But if the batter hits the ball and it is not caught, the batter tries to run to one or more of the four bases on the field.  The batter can run to all four bases if he hits the ball over the fence or out of the ballpark.  Such a hit is called a home run.


Now, here are some common expressions from baseball.  Someone who is on the ball is intelligent and able to do a good job.  But a person who threw a curveball did something unexpected.  Someone who steps up to the plate is ready to do his or her job.  A pinch hitter takes the place of someone else at a job or activity.


A person who strikes out or goes down swinging attempted something but failed.  We also might tell the person that three strikes and you are out.  But someone who hit a home run or  hit it out of the park did something extremely well.


Sometimes I have to give information quickly, without time to think it over.  Then I would say something right off the bat.  If someone is doing an extremely good job and is very successful, you might say he or she is batting one thousand. 

If I say I want to touch base with you, I will talk to you from time to time about something we plan to do.  I might say I touched all the bases if I did what is necessary to complete a job or activity.  And if I covered my bases I was well prepared.  However, someone who is way off base did something wrong or maybe even dishonest or immoral.  A person with strange ideas might be described as out in left field.

Let us say I want to sell my car but I do not know exactly how much it is worth.  If someone asks me the price, I might give a ballpark figure or a ballpark estimate.

If someone offers me an amount that is close to my selling price, I might say the amount is in the ballpark.  However, if I say we are not in the same ballpark, I mean we cannot agree because my ideas are too different from yours.


Finally, when a situation changes completely, we say that is a whole new ballgame.

Discussion Questions:

1.  Are you familiar with the game of baseball?  If you are familiar with it, explain how you come to know about it.

2.  Have you ever played the game of baseball?  Where and when?

3.  Which of the baseball phrases do you think you could use in your English conversations?
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