Winter Olympic Games 冬季奥林匹克运动会

冬季奥运会是每四年举行一次的世界著名的运动会。第一次冬季奥运会是1924年,在法国的夏墓尼举行。初创的运动项目只有高山滑雪、越野滑雪、花样滑冰、冰球、混合式滑雪、跳台滑雪、和速度滑冰。冬季奥运会在1924年到1936年期间,每四年举行一次。之后,由于第二次世界大战,就暂停了。奥运会在1948年又从新开始每四年举办一次。那时,冬季奥运和夏季奥运会在同一年举行,直至1992年。在1986年,国际奥林匹克委员会决定冬季奥运会与夏季奥运会在不同的年份举行,虽然还是每四年各自举行一次,但是每一个双数年份都有一次奥运会。因为这个决定,在1992年之后的一次冬季奥运会是在1994年举行了。

自从冬季奥运会开始之初,她就不断地发展。运动项目不断增加,而且很多项目成为冬季奥运会项目中久经不息的亮点,比如无舵雪橇、短道速滑和自由式滑雪。但是有的项目只是作为表演,比如速度滑冰、班迪球(又名爾文球)和单人立式雪橇,至今尚未列入正式比赛项目。

冬季奥运会在三大洲都举办过,但是一直没有在南半球举行。在美国举办了四次,在法国举办了三次,奥地利、加拿大、日本、意大利、挪威、和瑞士各举办了两次。在2014年,俄罗斯的索契是第一次在俄国举办的冬季奥运会。国际奥林匹克委员会选择了韩国的平昌郡作为2018年冬季奥运会的举办城市并且选择了中国北京举办2022年的冬季奥运会。在整个2017年,南半球的任何一个城市都没有申请在2月份举行的冬季奥运会上举办冬季奥运会,因为这个时候在南半球是盛夏。

这么些年以来,十二个国家参加了每一次的冬季奥运会。他们是:奥地利、加拿大、芬兰、法国、英国、匈牙利、意大利、挪威、波兰、瑞典、瑞士、和美国。其中六个国家每次在冬季奥运会上得到奖牌,他们是:奥地利、加拿大、芬兰、挪威、瑞典、和美国。但是只有美国每一次都得到金质奖牌,挪威在历届冬季奥运会奖牌统计上保持领先,而德国、日本和俄国都曾经被禁止参加冬季奥运会的比赛。

2018年的冬季奥运会是在二月九日至二十五日进行。整个比赛在十五项运动中进行一百零二场比赛,另外在这次冬季奥运会上还增加了单板滑雪、超距离、混双冰壶、和混合高山滑雪项目。参赛的运动员来自92个国家奥运委员会,总数达2952位,其中包括包括厄瓜多尔,厄立特里亚,科索沃,马来西亚,尼日利亚和新加坡的首次亮相。



讨论问题:
1.  从这篇文章里你对冬季奥运会学到了什么?

2. 请描述你对开幕式里最感兴趣的内容。

3.  你对哪一项比赛关注?对那一位运动员感到敬佩?

4.  奥运会有什么特别的地方?你对奥运会有不感兴趣的地方吗?

The Winter Olympic Games is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. The first celebration of the Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France, in 1924. The original sports were alpine and cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping and speed skating. The Games were held every four years from 1924 until 1936, after which they were interrupted by World War II. The Olympics resumed in 1948 and were celebrated every four years. The Winter and Summer Olympic Games were held in the same years until 1992, after a 1986 decision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to place the Summer and Winter Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years. Because of the change, the next Winter Olympics after 1992 was in 1994.

The Winter Games have evolved since their inception. Sports have been added and some of them, such as luge, short track speed skating and freestyle skiing, have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic program. Others, such as speed skiing, bandy and skijoring, were demonstration sports but never incorporated as an Olympic sports.

The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted on three continents, but never in a country in the southern hemisphere. The United States has hosted the Games four times; France has been the host three times; Austria, Canada, Japan, Italy, Norway and Switzerland have hosted the Games twice. In 2014 Sochi was the first Russian city to host the Winter Olympics. The IOC has selected Pyeongchang, South Korea, to host the 2018 Winter Olympics Games and Beijing, China to host the 2022 Winter Olympic Games. As of 2017 no city in the southern hemisphere had applied to host the cold-weather-dependent Winter Olympics, held in February, at the height of the southern hemispere's summer.

There are 12 countries - Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States - have attended every Winter Olympic Game. Six of those (Austria, Canada, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the United States) have earned medals at every Winter Olympic Game, and only one - the United States - has earned gold at each Game. Norway leads the all-time medal table. Germany, Japan, and Russia have been banned at times from competing in the Games.

The 2018 Winter Olympic Games run from the 9th to the 25th of February. The games feature 102 events in fifteen sports, with the addition of "big air" snowboarding, mass start speed skating, mixed doubles curling, and mixed team alpine skiing to the Winter Olympic program. A total of 2,952 athletes from 92 National Olympic Committees are expected to compete, including the debut of Ecuador, Eritrea, Kosovo, Malaysia, Nigeria and Singapore.


Discussion questions:

  1. What have you learned from this article about the Winter Olympic Games?
  2. Please describe what was interesting to you from the opening ceremony?
  3. What event or events did you enjoy watching? Which athletes impressed you?
  4. What is special about the Olympic Games? What don't you like about the Olympic Games?
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