Understanding Road Signs 认识美国的路标

Understanding Road Signs

Roadway signs in the United States increasingly use symbols rather than words to convey their message. Symbols provide instant communication with roadway users, overcome language barriers, and are becoming standard for traffic control devices throughout the world. Familiarity with symbols on traffic signs is important for every road user in order to maintain the safety and efficiency of our transportation facilities.

The color of roadway signs is an important indicator of the information they contain. The use of red on signs is limited to stop, yield, and prohibition signs. A white background indicates a regulatory sign; yellow conveys a general warning message; green shows permitted traffic movements or directional guidance; fluorescent yellow/green indicates pedestrian crossings and school zones; orange is used for warning and guidance in roadway work zones; coral is used for incident management signs; blue indicates road user services, tourist information, and evacuation routes; and brown is for guidance to sites of public recreation or cultural interest.

Sign shape can also alert roadway users to the type of information displayed on a sign. Traffic regulations are conveyed in signs that are rectangular with the longer direction vertical or square. Additional regulatory signs are octagons for stop and inverted triangles for yield. Diamond-shaped signs signify warnings. Rectangular signs with the longer direction horizontal provide guidance information. Pentagons indicate school zones. A circular sign warns of a railroad crossing. The illustration below shows how the shape and color of a sign indicate the nature of the message. 

Examples of signs:



Prepared in 2002 by the US Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration Office of Transportation Operations


Here's what you need to know if you are planning an American road trip for your next vacation:

        If you're driving slowly - perhaps just getting used to the traffic - the best lane for you to drive in is the far right lane, if there is more than one lane going in the same direction as you, of course!

        When traveling on a freeway or highway, your car should stay in the right lane, unless you're passing another vehicle. There are often signs to remind you of this. However, be aware that on Interstate highways, the right lane within an urban area is sometimes only for exiting (leaving) the Interstate at the next opportunity. 

        If you're at an intersection, American drivers usually defer to the vehicle who arrived at the intersection first. If two vehicles get there at the same time, the driver on the right proceeds, unless stopped by a red STOP or YIELD sign.

        Don't honk your horn, unless you're in a situation where you need to get the attention of another driver or pedestrian. For example, it's okay to honk when another car is about to hit you, but you may find that honking in the USA is less common than in other nations.

        The speed limit in a residential area is often 35 miles per hour (60kph), but is as low as 25 or 30 miles per hour in many areas. On Interstate highways and roads with very little traffic and intersections, the speed limit is commonly 55 miles per hour or greater.

        Based on the information released by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration about “Traffic Safety Facts 2015: Alcohol-Impaired Driving,” it revealed  that 10,265 people have died in drunk driving crashes - one every 51 minutes - and 290,000 were injured in drunk driving crashes. Remember to always make allowances when driving, and never ever exceed the legal blood alcohol limit which is 0.08.

For other current U.S. resident (non-citizen) planning a road trip, remember that each state has different requirements for obtaining a U.S. driver's license. You may want to check USA.gov for info about the state you reside in. Once you have a U.S. license from your state motor vehicle department, you are free to drive in all U.S. states including Alaska and Hawaii. However, remember that the driving laws in each state differ slightly. It's always up to you to research and learn the laws of the state where you are driving! 

https://www.vroomvroomvroom.com/tips-for-visitors-driving-in-the-usa/

Discussion Questions:

  1. What street signs from the ones listed in the article look new or strange to you?
  2. Did you have any surprises or unexpected confusion when you first started driving in America?
  3. What is the biggest difference in how road signs of the US compared to your home country?

www.salt-and-light.org/Audio/UnderstaningRoadSigns.mp3

认识美国的路标

美国的道路标志越来越多地使用符号而不是文字来表达它们的含义。这样的沟通方式可以使任何行在路上的人立即就能明白所应该知道的信息,从而克服了语言的障碍,并且正成为全球交通控制设备的标准。熟悉交通标志上的符号对于每个道路使用者都是重要的,以保持我们交通工具的安全和效率。

路标的颜色就是整个信息中的一个重要指标。红色是仅仅使用在停止、减速、和禁止这三种情况。白色背景表示监管标志;黄色传达一般警告信息;绿色显示允许的交通移动或方向指导;荧光黄/绿色表示行人过路处和学区;橙色用于道路工作区的警示和引导;珊瑚色用于事件管理标志;蓝色表示道路使用者服务,旅游信息和疏散路线;棕色是指导公众娱乐或文化兴趣的场所。

标志形状还可以提醒道路使用者在标志上显示的信息类型。交通规则是在垂直的长方形或者方形的标志中显示。另外,八角形的标志是停止;倒三角形的标志是要减速。菱形标志表示警告。长方型水平方向的矩形标志提供指导信息。五角型标志表示学校区域。圆形的标志表示道路与火车轨道交叉。下面的图标显示了各自路标的形状和颜色,及所表示的信息。

路标的例子:


以上是由美国运输部联邦公路管理局所在2002年制作的路标

如果您计划在美国进行公路旅行,以下是您需要知道的内容:

     如果你在一条有多条车道与你同向的道路上开车,如果只是想习惯一下美国的交通,你就慢慢地开车,那么最好在最右边的车道上行驶。

     在高速公路或高速公路上行驶时,应当行驶在右边的车道上,只有在超车时才使用左边的车道。在高速公路上经常有路标提醒行车在右边车道不应始终在右车道上行驶。但是请注意,在州际高速公路上和一部分市区内的高速公路上,只有在右侧道路才有下高速的出口。

     如果你在一个十字路口,美国司机通常有按先到的车辆先行的惯例。如果两辆车同时到达一个十字路口,右边的车辆应该先行驶,除非有红色的“STOP”“YIELD”标志。

     在美国没有人按喇叭,除非确实需要引起另一位司机或行人的注意。例如,当另一辆汽车即将撞上你的时候可以按喇叭,但是你可能会发现在美国的按喇叭的时候比其他国家少很多。

     住宅区的限速通常为每小时35英里(时速60公里),但在许多地区每小时低至2530英里。在州际高速公路和交通非常少的道路上,限速通常是每小时55英里或更高。

     根据美国国家公路交通安全管理局的资料,“2015年酒精造成的交通事故记录显示有10,265人因酒驾而丧生,也就是每51分钟就有一人死于酒驾;另外,还有290,000位因酒驾而受伤害。请牢记,驾驶员血液中的酒精含量极限是0.08

对于非美国永久居民来说(非美国公民),如果要开车旅行,请记住每一个州对于外国人获取驾照有不同的要求。最好到网上查询一下在所住州获取驾照的条例。一旦获取了驾照,就可以在美国所有的州,包括阿拉斯加和夏威夷,自由驾驶了。但是,请记住,各个州的交通规则略有不同。这就需要各人自己去获取在所驾驶的州里的交通规则了。

https://www.vroomvroomvroom.com/tips-for-visitors-driving-in-the-usa/

讨论问题:

  1. 本文中的哪一些交通标志对你来说是未曾见过的?
  2. 在你初到美国驾车的时候,是否曾经对交通标志感到困惑或者奇怪?
  3. 美国的交通标志与你国家的交通标志有哪些地方是绝然不同的?