Tipping and Etiquette in the United States (I) 在美国的小费惯例 (之一)


虽然在美国小费不是必须的,但是人们在有服务的场所,习惯上是会付小费的,特别是在堂吃的餐厅里,因为服务员在顾客的餐桌上有服务。对这样的服务员来说,小费是他们工作收入的一部分。在有的州里,小费是算在服务员的基本工资里的,虽然联邦政府规定的最低收入是每小时7.25美元,但是老板可能只付每小时2美元,而服务员加上小费就会达到至少是最低工资了。一般来说,小费的是整个用餐费用的15~20%。

在美国的小费率在各个州也不尽相同,以至于旅游指南上的介绍,因为资料来源不同小费率就有很大的区别。比如,有些人在自助餐里就不付小费,但是一般来说对于替你清理桌子、换盘子这一类的服务,每一位自助餐就餐者付1~2美元的小费是很正常的,如果服务员为顾客倒茶、端饮料、甚至有更多的服务,那么付用餐总额的10%的小费,也不是过分的。所以按惯例小费率是与服务好坏成正比的、与服务的质量成正比。

在有一些外卖店里,放着一个写着“小费”的罐子,这是近些年来的新发明,但是很多人对这种情况的感觉不是很好。有的旅游指南告诉游客在外卖店付10%的小费,但是大部分美国人对外卖店根本不付小费,无论在柜台有没有放一个小费罐子。对于诸如麦当劳这样的连锁快餐店,付小费是非常罕见的。当然,有的人会在小费罐子里放一点小费,通常就是找回来的零钱,或者就是1美元,以所买得食品的价格多少而定。

有一件事情是要记住的,服务员的小费是他们的收入,所以他们对于顾客的小费是很感激的。如果服务员提供了特别好的服务,得到比较高小费率的小费也是应该的。小费的本意是表示对好的服务的认可。

很多来美国的旅游者觉得小费不合理,觉得不应该付小费,因此对付小费感到了压力。除非在菜单上或者什么醒目的地方说明了必须付小费,那才是必须付小费的。不少餐厅是有规定要收小费的,当就餐人数超过六位的话(有的餐厅是超过八位)就规定要付小费。另外,有很多从没有小费国家来的客人就餐的餐厅里常常会规定要付小费,因为这些顾客没有付小费的习惯。这些餐厅常常是在著名的旅游景点,比如纽约的一些地方。

当餐厅规定要付小费的时候,如果顾客觉得服务员做了超出他们本分的服务,顾客还是可以再多付一点小费的。但是每一次付账的时候,总要仔细查看账单,查一下是否已经把小费算在账单上了,以免不小心就付了双份的小费。如果顾客感到服务不周,可以向经理提出减少规定的小费。

快餐店是没有小费的,因为服务员不在顾客的餐桌上服务,就是他们不把顾客点的食品端到顾客的餐桌上。

一些咖啡馆、面包店、和某些店,在他们的付款柜台上会放一个小费的罐子。 这种情况在最近几十年变得很普遍,但是这个现象使人感到糊涂,甚至对这样的情况有争议。一般来说,只有对服务感到特别满意的顾客才会在这样的小费罐子里放一些小费;其他人是不放小费的。事实上,顾客怎么做都没有错。

小费一直是餐厅服务员和在美国的其他服务人员的收入。雇主们给这些服务人员的工作都比较低,因为他们估计小费是这些服务人员收入的主要部分。顾客们应该明了,事实上并没有因为付了小费就付了更多的钱。在没有小费的地方,其实已经把服务员的工资加在食品的价格上了,而付小费却是更合理的,因为顾客可以根据所得到的服务来付恰当的服务费:如果服务不周,就只要付较少的小费,同时也表示他们的服务有待提高。

大部分住酒店的顾客都会对打扫房间的服务员,每天在顾客离开房间之前留一些小费给打扫房间的服务员,一方面是奖励打扫的服务员,也期待服务员有好的服务。


来源:
https://www.tripadvisor.com/Travel-g191-s606/United-States:Tipping.And.Etiquette.html


讨论问题

  1. 在您居住的地方是怎样付小费的?

  2. 在您那里的付小费的目的与在北美付小费的情景有何不同和相同的地方?

  3. 您觉得什么样的情况下要父小费?

  4. 您个人对付小费的标准是什么?





While tipping is not mandatory in most of the United States, it is customary in many circumstances for service, especially at almost all sit-down restaurants which offer table service and many food servers depend on tips as an essential part of their wage. Some states allow a "tip credit" to count as part of the Federal Minimum Wage of $7.25/hour so tipped employees may be paid as low as $2.00 an hour plus tips.  Generally, the average tip is 15% to 20% of the total meal cost.  

Tipping practices can vary depending upon the location in the U.S., and even published guidance can vary greatly depending upon the source.  For example, some Americans don't tip at a buffet restaurant, but it's generally good form to tip $1-2/person for wait staff just clearing several rounds of plates, to as much as 10 percent if the wait staff is refilling drinks and providing other services.  The general rule is to tip in proportion to the service, and the quality of service being delivered.

Tip jars at carry-out restaurants are a recent innovation, and one resisted by many Americans.  While one guide ... advises to tip 10 percent at carry-out restaurants, many Americans do not tip for carry-out, even when a tip jar is present, and tipping at most chain restaurants, such as McDonald's, is not common.  Some who do contribute to tip jars, put in change or only $1, depending upon the size of the order.

Keep in mind that those who provide service are often dependent on income and generally are grateful for any tips received, especially when prompt and exceptional service has been provided.  Tipping is the means by which to acknowledge good service.

Many visitors to the U.S. feel pressured to tip even when they do not feel it is fair or reasonable to do so. Customers are REQUIRED to pay 'mandatory gratuities (tips)' if these are disclosed (on the menu or elsewhere) prior to being served.  Mandatory gratuities are charged by many restaurants when large groups (6 or more; sometimes, 8 or more) are being served.  Mandatory gratuities also are used by some restaurants with large numbers of foreign customers who may not be familiar with American tipping customs, often in tourist centers such as New York City.

When 'mandatory tipping' is practiced, you may add more to the 'mandatory tip' if there is a desire to additionally reward some exceptional service.  Always examine your bill carefully to see if there is a mandatory gratuity included in the bill so that you don't accidentally add an additional gratuity to your payment.  If you feel your service was deficient, you can request a manager in order to have the mandatory gratuity adjusted downward.

Fast food restaurants do not have tipping as there is no 'table service' (when a server brings your food to your table).

Some coffee shops, bakeries and other establishments have tip jars on their check-out counters.  These have become more prevalent in recent decades and there is some confusion, even controversy about them.  Generally, those who feel a desire to reward good service will make a contribution to a tip jar.  Others do not.  Both are fine.

Tips are often a major source of compensation for wait staff and other U.S. service providers.  Employers often pay these employees lower wages in anticipation that tip income will provide a significant portion of the employees' income.  Customers should realize that they are not auotmatically paying 'more' (due to tipping).  In non-tipping countries, the tips are simply built into the price of the food.  An advantage to tipping, therefore, is the ability to tip whatever is appropriate: if the service is poor, a small tip should be left, signaling to the server that their service was subpar.

Many hotel guests who tip housekeeping staff leave tips daily before leaving the hotel, both to reward the person immediately servicing the room and in expectation of good service. 

Source:  https://www.tripadvisor.com/Travel-g191-s606/United-States:Tipping.And.Etiquette.html


Discussion Questions:

  1. What are the tipping practices in your region?

  2. How is the purpose for tipping in your region similar or different than the American tipping practices?

  3. What services do people tend to give tips?

  4. What are your personal guidelines regarding tipping?


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