American Table Manners 美国人的餐桌礼仪

餐桌礼仪是进餐时的礼节。不同的文化有不同的餐桌礼仪。事实上很多礼节是从实际需要而演变来的,比如把手肘放在餐桌上是属于不礼貌的行为,因为把手肘放在桌面上的时候就有把碗、杯打翻的可能。然而每一个家庭或者一些群体有他们自己的餐桌礼仪标准,也有他们自己对于这些礼仪如何严格执行程度的规定。

饭前:


做一个饭前的谢饭祷告,这在一些家庭里是很普遍的。客人可以加入谢饭的祷告,或者在祷告的时候保持安静以示尊敬。通常,由主人来做这样的谢饭祷告。


一般要等到每一个人都拿到了食物以后,大家才一起开始吃;除非那些还没有拿到食物的人士请你不要等候,你才可以先吃。


餐巾应该是放在膝盖上的。在正式的宴会中,客人要等主人把他(她)的餐巾放到膝盖上之后,才把自己的餐巾放上。


在正式的宴会上,食物应该同时送到餐桌上的每一位,但还是要等主人拿起餐具之后客人才能拿起餐具进餐。


如果你不能(或者不喜欢)吃某些食品,在你作客的时候,(如果主人不是你的亲戚,)不应要求主人为你另外再增添你要吃的食品。


进餐时的礼仪:


在家庭式的用餐中,常常是把一盘菜传递到各位的面前,有时由主人把菜拿到客人面前,稍微讲究一点的,会由佣人把菜呈到客人面前。如果是传递的话,你要按其他盘子传递的同一个方向把菜继续传给下一位。当你拿到传递过来的菜盘子的时候,把盘子放在你的左边,然后从中取菜,之后再传给下一位。在取的时候,不要取超过餐桌上人数比例的量,这样的话餐桌上的每一个人都能得到一份。如果你不想吃传递过来的菜,那就把它直接递给下一位,但是千万不要解释你为什么不吃或者作什么评论。如果是有人把菜盘子端给你,他会问你是否需要,你可以简单地回答,是的,请给一些”,或者说,谢谢,我不需要


当为进餐人士服务的时候,上菜都是从进餐者的左边放到他(她)的前面;而撤盘子的时候,都是从进餐者的右边拿走。但是对于饮料,无论是呈上或者撤离都是在进餐这的右方。


在喝汤的时候,用汤匙由靠近你的一处开始,向远离你的方向打汤。不要把整个汤匙放入嘴里来喝汤,而是在汤匙的边上喝汤。喝汤时,不应该发出任何的声音。如果汤碗里只剩一点儿汤了,你可以用不拿汤匙的手,把汤碗靠近你的一边略略提起,这将使你比较容易把余下的汤流入你的汤匙。


如果仅用叉子把食物叉起来有困难的话,可以用不拿叉子的手,拿一小片面包或者餐刀帮忙;但是千万不要直接用手。


按美国人的习惯,你不一定要吃所有拿给你的菜 ,也不一定要吃完你盘子上所有的菜,而且到最后你盘子里的菜没有吃完,也不是不礼貌的。不要询问别人为什么不吃某个菜,或者询问别人为什么不把菜吃完。


不要对餐桌上的菜进行批评,也不应该对菜的分量多少进行品头论足。


嚼东西的时候要闭上嘴。不要在嚼东西的时候发出声音,嘴里含有食物的时候也不要讲话;在吃的时候也不该有不应有的噪声发出来。也不要故意把餐具弄出声音来。


当你需要离开餐桌的时候,只要说对不起”,或者对不起,我得离开一下就可以了。不要详细解释为什么要离开的原因,更不要说我要上厕所了之类的话语。


千万不要在餐桌上擤鼻子。如果你必须做这些,你得先离开餐桌,在隐秘的地方进行。


在餐桌上不该打饱嗝儿、咳嗽、打哈欠和打喷嚏之类。万一你做了,赶快向大家表示歉意,说对不起


坐在餐椅上,不可以没精打采、装聋作哑的样子,也不可把椅子向后倾斜,翘椅子坐。


不可以玩弄食物或者餐具;更不能拿着餐具手舞足蹈地讲话,更不能拿餐具指人。


你可以把你手肘以下的部分放在餐桌上,但是不可把手肘放在餐桌上。


餐桌上不可使用手机讲话或者收发短讯,也不该做任何分散餐桌注意力的事情,比如阅读说报杂志、听随身听。只有在早餐的时候可以看报。如果有什么紧急的事必须通话,那也必须先向全桌的人打个招呼,然后离开餐桌才接电话,以免由你讲点话而影响大家。


如果有些放到嘴里的东西必须拿出来的话,你必须按照:用什么方式放入嘴的,也用同样的方式拿出来。只有鱼刺可以用手拿出来。


在没有把你自己盘子里的那一份吃完以前,不可以要更多同样的菜。


在正式宴会中,男士们在女士进入和离开餐桌的时候都应该起立。

宴席结束时的礼仪:


只要你把餐具平行放在盘子中央,餐具柄放在盘子的右侧,叉子口向上,这就是你吃好了一道菜的表示,无论你是否把盘子里的菜吃完,服务员就会把这个盘子连餐具一起收走。不要把用过了的餐具放在餐桌上。


在宴席结束的时候,特别是在一个正式的宴会里,不要提出把剩余的食物打包回家,除非这个宴席是在餐馆里进行。虽然主人常常会客气地请客人把剩余的食物带回家,但是作为客人不可先提出要带回家的要求。


把餐巾放在你自己的椅子上,是表示还要回来的意思。轻轻地把餐巾放在你主餐盘的左方,是表示你已经吃完了这整一桌餐了。


讨论问题:

1.   你觉得在这篇文章里,有哪些是不寻常和奇特的地方?
2   
你是否曾经与不同文化和不同餐桌礼仪的人共同进餐?能不能请你述说一下你的见闻和经验?

3.   
当你在幼年的时候,有没有人教了你一些餐桌礼仪是你至今还是在应用的?是谁教你的?

 
Table manners are the rules of etiquette used while eating. Different cultures observe different rules for table manners. Many table manners evolved out of practicality. For example, it is generally impolite to put elbows on tables, since doing so creates a risk of tipping over bowls and cups. Each family or group sets its own standards for how strictly these rules are to be enforced.

Before dining

  • A prayer or 'blessing' may be customary in some households, and the guests may join in or be respectfully silent. Most prayers are made by the host before the meal is eaten.
  • One does not start eating until every person is served or those who have not been served request that you begin without waiting.
  • Napkins are placed in the lap. At more formal occasions diners will wait to place their napkins on their laps until the host places his or her napkin on his or her lap.
  • At more formal occasions all diners should be served at the same time and will wait until the hostess or host lifts a fork or spoon before beginning.
  • Even if one has dietary restrictions, it is inappropriate for non-relatives to request food other than that which is being served by the host at a private function.

General manners while dining

  • When a dish is offered from a serving dish (a.k.a. family style), as is the traditional manner, the food may be passed around or served by a host or staff. If passed, you should pass on the serving dish to the next person in the same direction as the other dishes are being passed. Place the serving dish on your left, take some, and pass to the person next to you. You should consider how much is on the serving dish and not take more than a proportional amount so that everyone may have some. If you do not care for any of the dish, pass it to the next person without comment. If being served by a single person, the server should request if the guest would like any of the dish. The guest may say "Yes, please," or "No, thank you."
  • When serving, serve from the left and pick-up the dish from the right. Beverages, however, are to be both served as well as removed from the right-hand side.
  • Dip your soup spoon away from you into the soup. Eat soup noiselessly, from the side of the spoon. When there is a small amount left, you may lift the front end of the dish slightly with your free hand to enable collection of more soup with your spoon.
  • If you are having difficulty getting food onto your fork, use a small piece of bread or your knife to assist. Never use your fingers or thumb.
  • It is acceptable in the United States not to accept all offerings, and to not finish all the food on your plate. No one should ask why another doesn't want any of a dish or why he has not finished a serving.
  • There should be no negative comments about the food nor of the offerings available.
  • Chew with your mouth closed. Do not slurp, talk with food in your mouth, or make loud or unusual noises while eating.  Do not make excessive noise with utensils.
  • Say "Excuse me," or "Excuse me. I'll be right back," before leaving the table. Do not state that you are going to the restroom.
  • Refrain from blowing your nose at the table. Excuse yourself from the table if you must do so.
  • Burping, coughing, yawning, or sneezing at the table should be avoided. If you do so, say, "Excuse me."
  • Never slouch or tilt back while seated in your chair.
  • Do not "play with" your food or utensils. Never wave or point silverware.
  • You may rest forearms or hands on the table, but not elbows.
  • Do not talk on your phone or "text" at the table, or otherwise do something distracting, such as read or listen to a personal music player. Reading at the table is permitted only at breakfast. If an urgent matter arises, apologize, excuse yourself, and step away from the table so your conversation does not disturb the others.
  • If food must be removed from the mouth for some reason, it should be done using the same method which was used to bring the food to the mouth, i.e. by hand, by fork, etc., with the exception of fish bones, which are removed from the mouth between the fingers.
  • Before asking for additional helpings, always finish the serving on your plate first.
  • Gentlemen should stand when a lady leaves or rejoins the table in formal social settings.

At the end of the meal

  • When you have finished your meal, place all used utensils onto your plate together, on the right side, pointed up, so the waiter knows you have finished. Do not place used utensils on the table.
  • Except in a public restaurant, do not ask to take some uneaten food or leftovers home, and never do so when attending a formal dinner. A host may suggest that extra food be taken by the guests, but should not insist.
  • Leave the napkin on the seat of your chair only if leaving temporarily. When you leave the table at the end of the meal, loosely place the used napkin on the table to the left of your plate.


Discussion Questions:


1.  What do you find most unusual or interesting from the article?


2   Have you ever had a meal with someone from a different culture and table manners?  Please describe the experience.


3.  What table manners were you taught as a child that you still practice today.  Who taught it to you?



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