Sniffling, Sneezing and Turning Cubicles Into Sick Bays 流鼻涕、大喷嚏,把办公室变成了病区

从好几个研究的结果来看,因为生病而导致不能上班的情况正在不断地提升。

原因

我们说“感冒”是常见的病因。在美国每年有超过十亿个“感冒”病例。与其他疾病相比,感冒大概是你和你的孩子最容易得的病。按平均来说,孩子们一年内会得三至八次感冒。在他们的童年时代一直会是这样;而他们的父母又从孩子们身上染到感冒。感冒是孩子们最常见的缺课理由和成年人最常见的不上班的理由。

孩子们常常从别的孩子身上染到感冒。当一个新的感冒病毒被带到 了学校或者托儿所,很快整个班级的学生就都被染上了。

感冒是在整年都会发生的,但是最常见的是在冬天;即使是在不很冷的冬天,也不见得能幸免。在那些没有冬季的热带地区,感冒就常常出现雨季的时候。

当一个人患了感冒,他那流鼻涕的鼻子里就充满了感冒病毒。当他打喷嚏、擤鼻涕和清理鼻孔的时候就会传播感冒病毒。当你边上那个患感冒的人打喷嚏,你就会吸入他的感冒病毒而得感冒;当你的手碰到了感冒病毒以后,你的手又碰到了你的鼻子、眼睛或者嘴巴,你就会被传染到感冒。

当你被传染到感冒之后的第二、三天,你最会把感冒病毒传染给别人。通常在得病之后的七天到十天之后,你就基本不会传染给别人了,或者根本就不会传染给别人了。

 

病状

感冒有以下的最常见的病状:

·         鼻塞

·         流鼻涕

·         打喷嚏

成年人和年纪较大的孩子通常在患感冒的时候会稍微有点烧或者不发烧。

当你被传染到感冒病毒之后,病状就会在二、三天之内出现,这病状会持续大约一周时间。典型的最初感觉是鼻子感到不舒服,喉咙状感到难受,几小时以后,你就会开始流 清水状态的鼻涕。

在一到三天之内,鼻涕就会变得浓厚,而且颜色可能会变成黄色或者绿色。这是很正常的得感冒的程序,并不需要依靠抗生素来医治。

不同的感冒病毒会导致不同的病状,有时也会有如下的病状:

·         咳嗽

·         食欲不振

·         头痛

·         肌肉痛

·         有痰

·         喉咙痛

不管怎样,如果只是感冒的话,最主要病状是在鼻子上。

除了诸如咳嗽之类的病状会继续延续一个礼拜以外,整个感冒基本会在七天左右痊愈。如果一个礼拜以后还没有痊愈,你就应该去看医生,确定是否有鼻窦炎或者过敏这类情况。

 

治疗

好好休息,大量喝 流质。那些不需要处方的感冒成药可能可以减少病状的痛苦,让你感到舒服一些,但是不能缩短患感冒的时间。

注意:医务人员建议,对于不满六周岁的儿童不要使用咳嗽和感冒药。虽然有些不需要处方的 感冒成药上面写着儿童可以服用,但是最好还是在服用前先问一下医生。这些药一般不仅对儿童没有作用,而且还有严重的副作用。

对于通常的感冒,不应该使用抗生素。抗生素不仅不能减轻感冒的病状,反而会把病情弄得更糟。即使是有黄色或者绿色脓鼻涕,也没有理由使用抗生素,除非黄脓鼻涕在十到十四天还没有停止。(在这种情况时,你可能患了鼻窦炎了。)

新的抗病毒的药可以在一天之内 就减缓留鼻涕的情况,也可以比通常提早一天结束流鼻涕的病状。但是目前还不知道这些药物的危险性大还是 对感冒的医治作用大。

自从十二世纪以来,鸡汤一直是被(西方)广泛用来治疗感冒。可能真的是有作用,因为里面的盐和热的汤汁也许能帮病人 的身体与炎症作斗争。

另外还被用来治感冒的还有:

·         紫锥菊

·         维生素C

·        

来源:

http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/common-cold/overview.html


问题与讨论:

1. 你是怎样来预防感冒的?

2. 你觉得当人们生病的时候是否应该去上班、上学?

3. 你会为孩子得了感冒的家长们提出什么样的治疗建议?

4. 你宁可使用传统的中药还是西药,还是两者兼用?为什么?


Ailing employees are dragging themselves to work in increasing numbers, according to several studies.

Causes

We call it the “common cold” for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will probably have more colds than any other type of illness. Children average three to eight colds per year. They continue getting them throughout childhood. Parents often get them from the kids. Colds are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work.

Children usually get colds from other children. When a new strain is introduced into a school or day care, it quickly travels through the class.

Colds can occur year-round, but they occur mostly in the winter (even in areas with mild winters). In areas where there is no winter, colds are most common during the rainy season.

When someone has a cold, their runny nose is teeming with cold viruses. Sneezing, nose-blowing, and nose-wiping spread the virus. You can catch a cold by inhaling the virus if you are sitting close to someone who sneezes, or by touching your nose, eyes, or mouth after you have touched something contaminated by the virus.

People are most contagious for the first 2 to 3 days of a cold, and usually not contagious at all by day 7 to 10.

 

Symptoms

The three most frequent symptoms of a cold are:

·         Nasal congestion

·         Runny nose

·         Sneezing

Adults and older children with colds generally have a low fever or no fever.

Once you have "caught" a cold, the symptoms usually begin in 2 or 3 days, though it may take a week. Typically, an irritated nose or scratchy throat is the first sign, followed within hours by sneezing and a watery nasal discharge.

Within 1 to 3 days, the nasal secretions usually become thicker and perhaps yellow or green. This is a normal part of the common cold and not a reason for antibiotics.

Depending on which virus is causing the symptoms, the virus might also cause:

·         Cough

·         Decreased appetite

·         Headache

·         Muscle aches

·         Postnasal drip

·         Sore throat

Still, if it is indeed a cold, the main symptoms will be in the nose.

The entire cold is usually over all by itself in about 7 days, with perhaps a few lingering symptoms (such as cough) for another week. If it lasts longer, see your doctor to rule out another problem such as a sinus infection or allergies.

 

Treatment

Get plenty of rest and drink lots of fluids. Over-the-counter cold remedies may help ease your symptoms. These won't actually shorten the length of a cold, but can help you feel better.

NOTE: Medical experts have recommended against using cough and cold drugs in children under age 6. Talk to your doctor before your child takes any type of over-the-counter cough medicine, even if it is labeled for children. These medicines likely will not work for children, and they may have serious side effects.

Antibiotics should not be used to treat a common cold. They will not help and may make the situation worse. Thick yellow or green nasal discharge is not a reason for antibiotics, unless it doesn't get better within 10 to 14 days. (In this case, it may be a sinus infection called sinusitis.)

New antiviral drugs can make runny noses completely clear up a day sooner than usual (and begin to ease the symptoms within a day). It is unclear whether the benefits of these drugs outweigh the risks.

Chicken soup has been used for treating common colds at least since the 12th century. It may really help. The heat, fluid, and salt may help you fight the infection.

Alternative treatments that have also been used include:

·         Echinacea

·         Vitamin C

·         Zinc

 Source: 

http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/common-cold/overview.html


Questions and discussion:

1.   What are some of the things you do to keep from catching a “cold”?

2,  Do you think people should go to work or school when they are sick?

3.  What type of treatment would you recommend to a person with a “cold”?

4.  Do you prefer traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine, or a combination of the two? Why?

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