The Job Market 就业市场

在美国,五月和六月是学生毕业的月份。在中国江苏省的一位听众,胡杰克,想要知道美国的大学毕业生是怎样找工作的。当今的答案是:不很容易。

全国大学和业主协会收集了大学生就业的资料。全国大学和业主协会最近一次在三月份进行的调查中发觉,今年业主们招收的大学生将比去年降低百分之二十二,这个情况主要是因为经济危机而造成的。

而最近对大学生的调查显示,在毕业之前就开始找工作的学生中,到现在为止只有其中五分之一的学生找到了工作。与两年以前相比,有一半的毕业生在这个时候就找工作了,而其中的不同点是今年找工作的毕业生就比较少。

全国大学和业主协会也发现,没有更多的毕业生计划要继续留在学校而不顾就业市场。大约有百分之二十七的大学毕业生说要进入研究院深造,而去年只有百分之二十四的大学毕业生这样说。

工程系和会计系的毕业生们看来是最先开始寻找工作的学生,他们也都已经找到了工作。而且具有大学学士学位是专业人士中得到薪金最高的。从工程专业毕业的大学生,一般年薪在六万两千美元左右,而会计系毕业的大学生期待的年薪是四万五千美元。

怎样才能增加找到工作的机会呢?全国大学和业主协会的咪咪·考林斯说,学校的职业顾问服务中心有最有效的方法。那里的顾问指导毕业生如何填写工作申请,如何准备面试。顾问们也告诉毕业生哪里在招人,哪里在举办招聘会。他们也帮助大学第一年的新生决定到底应该读哪个专业。

另外一个找工作的方法是先找一个实习生的职位。作为一个学生可以在实践中得到工作经验,但是这个工作或许是一项没有酬劳的工作。全国大学和业主协会的调查显示,在找到工作的毕业生中,有百分之七十三的学生在毕业前就完成了实习生的工作。

全国大学和业主协会也在三月份向大众报告,雇主们对大学实习生按小时计算的酬劳将比去年提高百分之五。但是由于目前的经济状态,雇主们将会减少百分之二十一的实习生职位。

这是美国之音的特别英语教学报告,由南希·斯丹 巴克提供。


讨论问题:
1.   请诉说一下在你大学毕业时找工作的经验;如果你还在学校念书,你对毕业以后找工作有什么担忧?

2.   你 会给别人怎么样找工作的忠告;你得到了哪些能够与大家分享的找工作的忠告?

3.   在你的专业和地理位置,目前找工作的情况怎样了?

4.   在你那里,什么样的工作因为有较多的就业机会,从而成为大家都想学的专业?
In America, May and June are the traditional months for graduations. A listener in China, Jack Hoo from Jiangsu province, wants to know how American college graduates find jobs. Right now the answer is: not very easily.
The National Association of Colleges and Employers collects information on the college job market. NACE's latest survey in March found that employers expected to hire twenty-two percent fewer graduates this year than last. Most blamed the recession.
The most recent student survey showed that just one-fifth of those who looked for jobs before graduation have one by now. This is compared to half of students who had looked for a job by this time two years ago. But one difference: fewer of this year's graduates have started to search for jobs.
Still, NACE found no big increase in graduates who plan to stay in school and avoid the job market. About twenty-seven percent said they plan to go to graduate school, compared to about twenty-four percent a year ago.
Engineering and accounting graduates were more likely to have started their job search already and to have accepted a job. These are among the best paid professions for people with just a college degree. On average, engineering majors expect to start at about sixty-two thousand dollars a year. Accounting majors expect about forty-five thousand.
So how can students increase their chances for a job? Mimi Collins at NACE says the most effective tool is a school's career counseling center. Counselors can help students with job applications and preparing for interviews. They also let students know about job openings and events like job recruitment fairs. They can also help first-year students decide what to study.
Another way to look for a job is to do an internship. This is when a student gets experience in a position that may or may not be paid. The latest NACE survey found that seventy-three percent of graduates who did get jobs had completed an internship.
The group reported in March that employers expected to increase hourly wage offers for college interns by five percent from last year. But, because of the economy, employers reduced the number of internships available by twenty-one percent.
And that's the VOA Special English Education Report, written by Nancy Steinbach. 

Discussion questions:
1. Please describe your experience in finding a job after college.
         or
     If you are still a student, what are your concerns about finding a job after graduation?
2. What advice would you give someone about getting a job?  
            or  
    What advice have you learned about getting a job that you can share with the class?
3. What is the current employment situation in your profession and geographical location?
4. What jobs are popular in your area because of employment opportunities?
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