Brain Exercises to Boost Memory 锻炼脑子,增强记忆力

我们不仅会随着时间的推移而失去肌肉 - 我们的大脑也会萎缩。但正如体重锻炼可以为您的身体增加肌肉并帮助您在晚年保留更多肌肉,研究人员现在认为,遵循大脑健康的生活方式并进行定期的,有针对性的大脑锻炼也可以增加您的大脑的认知储备。

在迄今为止关于生活方式与痴呆风险之间关系的最详细研究之一中,研究人员发现参与多种健康锻炼的人显着降低了患痴呆症的风险。 2013年的研究,PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science, 公共科学图书馆综合期刊),研究了2235名男性30年,并测量了他们参与五种健康的生活方式行为:非吸烟,最佳BMI (身高体重指数),高水果和蔬菜摄入量,定期体育活动以及低或中等酒精摄入量。遵循四种或五种行为的研究参与者发生认知障碍和痴呆的可能性降低约60%。

专家说,良好的大脑健康行为包括低脂肪,低胆固醇和高抗氧化剂的均衡饮食,定期运动 - 促进血管健康,帮助保护脑组织,避免车辙和无聊也很关键。 “大脑需要学习新事物,”爱荷华州得梅因市约翰尼奥尔记忆中心和健康老龄化研究所的医学主任班德博士说。 “当大脑不运作的时候,它有萎缩的倾向,”他补充道。

除了健康的饮食和定期锻炼之外,还有一些方法可以让你的大脑有自己的锻炼习惯。专家建议坚持涉及现实世界活动的大脑训练。加强大脑功能的练习应该提供新颖性和挑战性。例如,通过不同的路线开车回家;用你的另一只手刷牙。大脑通过联想起作用[这就是为什么记住歌曲的歌词比尝试记住没有音乐的相同词语更容易],所以你涉及的感觉越多越好。比如,数独游戏和文字游戏这样的游戏都是很好的大脑练习,以及漫画版上从一张漫画到另一张漫画中你寻找不一样的地方。

除了文字游戏之外,还请注意以下内容可以提高您的心理技能:

  1. 测试你的回忆能力。制作一份清单 - 杂货,待办事项或其他任何想到的东西 - 并记住它。大约一个小时后,查看您可以回忆起所有在清单上的物品和数量。把列表中的项目尽可能具有挑战性,以获得最大的精神刺激。

  2. 让音乐来帮助你。学习演奏乐器或加入合唱团。研究表明,在较长一段时间内学习新的和复杂的东西对于老龄化的思维来说是有功效的。

  3. 心算数学题目。在没有铅笔,纸张或计算机的情况下解决问题;你可以通过同时走路来提高难度 - 并且更具运动性。

  4. 参加烹饪课。学习如何烹饪新菜。烹饪使用了许多感官:嗅觉,触觉,视觉和味觉,这些都涉及大脑的不同部分。

  5. 学习一门外语。听力和听力会刺激大脑。更重要的是,丰富的词汇量与减缓认知能力下降的风险有关。

  6. 创建单词图片。想象一下你头脑中单词的写法,然后试着想一下用相同的两个笔划开头(或结尾)的任何其他单词。

  7. 根据记忆来绘制一张地图。从参观新地点回家后,尝试绘制该地区的地图;每次访问新位置时重复此练习。

  8. 挑战你的味蕾。在进食时,尝试识别您的膳食中的各种成分,包括微量的调料和香料。

  9. 优化您的手眼协调能力。为自己开发一项精细动作的新兴趣,例如打毛衣,绘画,绘画,拼图等。

  10. 学习一项新的运动。开始进行运动锻炼,结合体力和心思,比如:瑜伽,高尔夫球或网球。




讨论问题:

  1. 在这篇文章里,你觉得哪些是你感兴趣的或者哪些是新的知识?

  2. 你目前使用什么样的锻炼和健康的生活方式来增强你的记忆力?

  3. 读了这篇文章以后,你会增加什么样的锻炼和健康生活方式?

  4. 你还有什么方式可以提升记忆力吗?



www.salt-and-light.org/Audio/BrainExercise.mp3

We don’t just lose muscle over time — our brains can atrophy too. But just as weight workouts add lean muscle to your body and help you retain more muscle in your later years, researchers now believe that following a brain-healthy lifestyle and performing regular, targeted brain exercises can also increase your brain's cognitive reserve.


In one of the most detailed studies on the connection between lifestyle and dementia risk to date, researchers found that people who participate in multiple healthy behaviors significantly reduce their risk for dementia. The 2013 study, in PLOS ONE, looked at 2,235 men for 30 years and measured their participation in five healthy lifestyle behaviors: non-smoking, optimal BMI (Body Mass Index), high fruit and vegetable intake, regular physical activity, and low to moderate alcohol intake. The study participants who followed four or all five of the behaviors were about 60 percent less likely to develop cognitive impairment and dementia.


Experts say good brain health behaviors include a well-balanced diet low in fat, low in cholesterol and high in antioxidants, regular exercise -- which promotes vascular health to help protect brain tissue, and avoiding ruts and boredom is also critical. "The brain wants to learn new things," says Dr. Bender, medical director of the Johnny Orr Memory Center and Healthy Aging Institute in Des Moines, Iowa.   "When the brain is passive, it has a tendency to atrophy," he adds.


On top of a healthy diet and regular exercise, there are ways to give your brain its own workout routine.  Experts recommend sticking to brain training that involves real-world activities. The exercises to strengthen brain function should offer novelty and challenge.  For example, drive home via a different route; brush your teeth with your opposite hand. The brain works through associations [which is why it's easier to memorize lyrics to a song than it is to try and remember the same words without music], so the more senses you involve the better.  Games like Sudoku and word games are good brain exercises, as well as the comic strips where you find things that are not the same from one picture to the next.


In addition to word games, the following is noted to sharpen your mental skills:


  1. Test your recall. Make a list — of grocery items, things to do, or anything else that comes to mind — and memorize it. An hour or so later, see how many items you can recall. Make items on the list as challenging as possible for the greatest mental stimulation.

  2. Let the music play. Learn to play a musical instrument or join a choir. Studies show that learning something new and complex over a longer period of time is ideal for the aging mind.

  3. Do math in your head. Figure out problems without the aid of pencil, paper, or computer; you can make this more difficult — and athletic — by walking at the same time.

  4. Take a cooking class. Learn how to cook a new cuisine. Cooking uses a number of senses: smell, touch, sight, and taste, which all involve different parts of the brain.

  5. Learn a foreign language. The listening and hearing involved stimulates the brain. What’s more, a rich vocabulary has been linked to a reduced risk for cognitive decline.

  6. Create word pictures. Visualize the spelling of a word in your head, then try and think of any other words that begin (or end) with the same two letters.

  7. Draw a map from memory. After returning home from visiting a new place, try to draw a map of the area; repeat this exercise each time you visit a new location.

  8. Challenge your taste buds. When eating, try to identify individual ingredients in your meal, including subtle herbs and spices.

  9. Refine your hand-eye abilities. Take up a new hobby that involves fine-motor skills, such as knitting, drawing, painting, assembling a puzzle, etc.

  10. Learn a new sport. Start doing an athletic exercise that utilizes both mind and body, such as yoga, golf, or tennis.


From:  https://www.everydayhealth.com/longevity/mental-fitness/brain-exercises-for-memory.aspx



Discussion questions:

  1. What do you find interesting or new from this article?

  2. What lifestyle behaviors or exercises are you currently doing to help strengthen memory?

  3. What  lifestyle behaviors or exercises will you add to your health practice now that you have read this article?

  4. What are some other suggestions you have to sharpen your memory?