Lesson 02 第二课

THE DOCTRINE OF JESUS CHRIST


I.    His Names

A.    Numerous Titles

1.    There are at least 80 different names given in the New Testament referring to Christ.  These names declare Christ’s person, nature, and work.

2.    Some of the more prominent names are listed below:

B.    “Christ”

1.    This was the official title.  This official title came to be used as a personal name.

2.    “Christ” is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew “Messiah,” which means “The Anointed One.”

C.    “Jesus”

1.    This is the human, personal, saving name of the Son of God.

2.    “Jesus” is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew “Joshua,” which means “Jehovah Is Salvation.”  (Matt. 1:21; Acts 4:12)

D.    “Lord”

1.    In the New Testament, when “Lord” is used to speak of Jesus in the purely Christian sense, it means Jehovah in the flesh. (1 Peter 3:15)

2.    Thomas declared Jesus to be “my Lord and my God” (John 20:28).

E.    “Word”

1.    This title for Christ is found only in John’s writings (i.e., John 1:1, 14).

2.    The Greek word is Logos, and when speaking of Jesus it means an open, spoken manifestation of God.

F.    “Son of Man”

1.    This was Jesus’ favorite way of referring to himself.  This term expressed his humanity and suggests Christ’s identity with man for his redemption.

2.    In the Gospels, it was used only by Jesus except when quoted by his questioners.  It was also used by Stephen as recorded in Acts 7:56.

3.    The usage of the term “Son of Man” comes chiefly from Daniel 7:13-14.

G.    “Son of God”

1.    This title was used to stress Christ’s deity.

2.    Only demons used this title in addressing Jesus directly (Matt. 8:28-29).


II.    Christ’s Deity-Humanity

A.    His Deity

1.    John declared Christ to be coeternal, coequal, and coexistent with God (John 1:1-2).  The four uses of “was” in these verses render a form of the verb meaning “always was.”  There never was a time when this was not true.

2.    As deity, Christ was active in creation (John 1:3; Col. 1:16-17).

3.    Perhaps the greatest single verse on the deity of Christ is Colossians 2:9.

4.    Jesus made several claims of his deity: John 10:30; 17:5, 21-22.

B.    His Humanity

1.    He who always was God Himself became a flesh-and-blood man that he might redeem man from sin (John 1:14).

2.    As a man, Jesus experienced the same temptations that we do on this earth, yet he remained sinless (2 Cor. 5:21; Hebrews 4:15; 7:26; 1 Peter 2:22).

3.    Although critics may question the manner of Christ’s birth, they cannot rightly question his character.  In his life, Jesus revealed God’s holiness, righteousness, truth, and love.

4.    Jesus always did the Father’s will (John 4:34; 14:31; 15:10).  Even Jesus’ enemies could find no fault in him (Luke 23:13-15).

C.    His Incarnation

1.    The incarnation refers to the fact that Jesus was God in the flesh.  The word “incarnation” comes from the Latin incarnatio, which means “to become flesh.”  The Bible often speaks of the fact of Christ’s incarnation: Isa. 7:14; 9:6; John 1:14; Rom. 8:3.

2.    There are numerous scriptures which speak of Christ’s heavenly origin: John 3:31; 6:38; 16:30; 1 Cor. 15:47.

3.    A very important aspect of the incarnation is seen in the fact that Christ “emptied himself” to become a man (Phil 2:5-8).

D.    The Virgin Birth

1.    The fact that Jesus was born of a virgin is clearly stated in the Bible:       Matt. 1:18-25; Luke 1:26-38.

2.    Some people question the virgin birth for different reasons.  For one, some contend that it is only recorded by Matthew and Luke in the New Testament.  However, the Bible needs to state something only once for it to be true.

3.    Secondly, some deny the virgin birth based on the fact that it is contrary to the natural laws of genetics.  We cannot limit the work of God to natural laws as we understand them.  Mary raised the same question to the angel Gabriel.  His answer is recorded in Luke 1:34-37

4.    Another point critics suggest in opposition to a belief in the virgin birth is in reference to the Greek word translated “virgin.”  In Matthew 1:23, the angel of the Lord in speaking to Joseph quoted Isaiah 7:14.  The Greek word used in Matthew is parthenos and is a rendering of the Hebrew almah of Isaiah 7:14.  Almah was typically used to refer to a woman of marriageable age.  The Greek parthenos may also be used generally in reference to a young woman, but it more typically was used to mean virgin.  In addition, both Matthew and Luke clearly had in mind that Mary was a virgin.

5.    The incarnation proves that, although Jesus was human, He was no mere man; He was God in the flesh.


III.    Christ’s Atoning Death

A.    Our Need For Atonement

1.    There was a moral difficulty in God’s relation to human sin, which it was the purpose of the atonement to remove.

2.    God condemns sin (Rom. 1:8).  This condemnation is the thing that necessitates justification, and the ground of justification is Christ’s atoning work.

B.    Christ’s death was propitiatory (Rom. 3:25-26; 1 John 2:2; Heb. 2:17)

1.      Propitiation means that Christ’s death turned God’s anger away from our sin.

1.      The Christian idea of propitiation is not that God’s wrath had to be appeased before He would have mercy or love the sinner.  Rather, it is that God’s holy character reacts against sin and that sin interposes a barrier that must be removed.  In his death, Christ removed that barrier by taking upon himself the sins of the world (2 Cor. 5:21).

2.      Christ’s death was the grounds for forgiveness.  In his death, Christ endured the righteous judgment of God upon man’s sin.

C.    Christ’s death was vicarious.

1.      This means that Christ’s death was substitutionary.   He did something for us which we could not do for ourselves.

2.      Christ’s death also was voluntary.  No one took his life; he gave it freely (Matt. 26:53).


IV.    Christ’s Resurrection

A.    Through the living Christ, we conquer sins.

1.    Jesus conquered death because he conquered sin.  He conquered sin for us and thereby enables us to conquer sin (Rom. 8:2-4; 1 Cor. 15:56-57).

2.    If not for the resurrection of Christ, we would still be in our sins                  (1 Cor. 15:17).

B.    The resurrection gives us the assurance that death is not the end of life.

1.     The appearances and ascension of Jesus give us assurance that, for those who die in relationship with him, death is the entrance into a more glorious life.

2.     The resurrection of Jesus is the guarantee of triumph over death for all who are united to him by faith (1 Cor. 15:12-26).


THE DOCTRINE OF CHRIST

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.    What are some of the names for Jesus used in the New Testament?

2.    What does Christ’s deity mean?

3.    What does Christ’s humanity mean?

4.    What does the Incarnation refer to?

5.    Why is the Virgin Birth important?

6.    How was Christ’s sacrifice a propitiation?

7.    How was Christ’s death vicarious?

8.    What assurance does Christ’s resurrection give to us?