John 19: 1-42 约翰福音 第十九章 第一至第四十二节


THE CRUCIFIXION

John 19:1-42


I.    The Source of Power (19:1-16a)


 A.    The Scourging (vv. 1-7)

  1. The physical and emotional torture Jesus suffered is beyond description. He was not only physically beaten, but was also ridiculed and mocked.
  2. Perhaps as one last effort to have Jesus released, Pilate had Him beaten then presented Him to the crowd again to see if they would have pity on Him and have Him released.
  3. Jesus was beaten with a whip known as “the cat of nine tails,” which was made of nine strips of leather with pieces of jagged metal and bone attached to the ends.  When a person was beaten with this whip, it would rip and tear the flesh severely.  The Jews had a law that prohibited a person from being flogged with more than forty lashes.  However, Jesus was flogged by the Romans, not the Jews; and the Romans did not have a limit on the number of lashes.  We really don’t know how many lashes Jesus received, but it was stated that he was beaten beyond recognition.
  4. Even after Jesus was so severely beaten, when the crowd saw Him and Pilate suggested His release, the crowd insisted on His death because He had claimed to be the Son of God (v. 7).

B.    Pilate’s Continued Efforts to Have Jesus Released (vv. 8-15)

  1. When Pilate heard the crowd’s statement about Jesus’ claim to be the Son of God, he was afraid.  Perhaps he was afraid of possible violence, of loss of favor in Rome for his inability to control the turbulent Jews, or even of some sense of Jesus’ true nature as God’s Son.
  2. Pilate again questioned Jesus about His origin, and when Jesus didn’t answer he stated that he had the power to release or crucify Jesus.  Jesus answered, “You would have no authority over Me, unless it had been given you from above; for this reason he who delivered Me to you has the greater sin” (v. 11).
  3. While Pilate was not the initiator of the death of Jesus, he was not without sin in the matter.

II.    The Hour Is Come (19:16-27)


A.    The Crucifixion

  1. In one last effort to cleanse himself from guilt, Pilate had the title “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews” fastened to His cross.  It was written in three languages: Latin, Aramaic, and Greek (v. 19).  To this point, every prophecy regarding the Messiah – even to the gambling for His clothes – was fulfilled (v. 24; Ps. 22:18).
  2. Crucifixion was the method the Romans used to execute Christ.  It was the most powerful and degrading form of capital punishment in the ancient world.  A person crucified in Jesus’ day was first beaten, as was Jesus, which was designed to hasten death and lesson the terrible ordeal of the crucifixion itself.  After the beating, the victim carried the crossbeam to signify that life was over and to break his will to live.  A tablet detailing the crime was placed around the criminal’s neck.  At the site, the prisoner was tied or nailed to the crossbeam.  The nails were driven through the wrist rather than the palm, since the smaller bones of the hand would not support the weight of the body.  The victim’s feet were nailed to the upright beam.
  3. Present at Jesus’ crucifixion were His mother, His mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.  Also present was the author of this Gospel, John, whom Jesus instructed to care for His mother (v. 27).

B.    The Seven Sayings of Jesus on the Cross

  1. “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing” (Luke 23:34).  Jesus asked forgiveness for His enemies.
  2. “I tell you the truth, today, you will be with me in paradise” (Luke 23:43).  Jesus offered paradise to the repentant thief on the cross.
  3. “Dear woman, here is your son” and “Here is your mother” (John 19:27).  Jesus committed the care of Mary to His disciple John.
  4. “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” (Matt. 27:46).  Jesus was aware of His alienation from God.
  5. “I am thirsty” (John 19:28).  Jesus expressed agony because of the torture of crucifixion.
  6. “It is finished” (John 19:30).  A cry of victory expressing that He had paid the debt of sin.
  7. “Father, into Your hands I commit My spirit” (Luke 23:46).  An expressed confidence in the triumphant restoration of fellowship with the Father after death.

III.    It Is Finished: The Death of Jesus (19:28-37)


A.    The Debt is Paid

  1. The actual death of Jesus was preceded with the words fitting the account in John’s Gospel: “It is finished” (v. 30).  What did Jesus mean by these words?  The mission of Jesus, the Son of God, was to die a substitutionary death for sinful persons.  As a result of His death on our behalf, our sin was atoned, and eternal life through Jesus became attainable through a trusting faith.
  2. The phrase “It is finished” in the Greek carries the idea of completion.  The words meant that the debt of all our sin is all paid.  Of particular significance is that the Greek perfect tense is used, which indicates a completed action that has continuing results.  This word could also be translated, “It is accomplished.”

B.    The Voluntary Act

  1. With these final words, Jesus bowed His head and “gave up His spirit” (v. 30).  This unusual way of describing a person’s death suggests that Jesus died voluntarily as an act of the will.
  2. After His death, a soldier pierced His side, “and immediately blood and water came out” (v. 34).  From a medical standpoint, the mixture of blood and water from the spear’s thrust was the result of piercing the sac that surrounds the heart as well as the heart itself.
  3. John then offered his testimony that he was a witness to the Crucifixion and that even to the final moment every detail fulfilled the prophecies concerning the Messiah (vv. 35-38).

IV.    The Burial of Jesus (19:38-42)


A.    Jesus Abandoned

  1. After the death of Jesus, most of the disciples were nowhere to be found.  They had fled in fear.
  2. But two persons who had been afraid to declare their allegiance up to this point came forward boldly to care for the body of Christ.  These two were Nicodemus, the man who approached Jesus by night as described in John chapter 4, and Joseph of Arimathea, a rich member of the Sanhedrin who had agreed to the condemnation of Jesus (Matt. 27:57; Luke 23:50-51).  

B.    The Tomb

  1. Jesus was laid in a tomb following a traditional Jewish preparation, which included washing the body, anointing the body in special spices and ointments, and wrapping the body in strips of cloth.
  2. The tomb in which Jesus was laid was “a new tomb in which no one had yet been laid” (v. 41).



REVIEW QUESTIONS

  1. Why did the Jews insist on Jesus’ death?  In their view, what crime had Jesus committed?
  2. Read the account of Jesus’ death and crucifixion in John 19.  What physical suffering did Jesus endure? How do you think this suffering might compare to that of His bearing the weight of the world’s sin?
  3. What does the phrase “It is finished” convey?
  4. What were the circumstances of Jesus’ burial?  Following Jesus’ death, what was the apparent state of affairs among the disciples? 
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