British Missionary Samuel Pollard 英国宣教士-伯格理

柏格理(Samuel Pollard,1864年4月20日-1915年9月16日),英國衛理公會傳教士,滇東北老苗文的創建者之一,著名社會改良實踐者。

柏格理出生於英國康沃爾的一個牧師家庭。他早年的志向是當公務員。但他在1885年參加的一次教會會議改變了他的理想,柏格理從此投身於傳教事業。1887年,他抵達中國雲南,1892年,他在昭通負責當地的傳教事宜。1905年,他應苗族一個分支大花苗的邀請,前往石門坎傳教。

在石門坎期間,柏格理不但成功的使當地苗民皈依基督教,還在當地建立了一系列的醫院、學校和其他公用設施。他與當地苗民從速記符號中(一說,從苗民傳統服裝的圖案)獲得靈感,為苗語創建了一套被稱為「滇東北老苗文」的書寫系統,時至今日,這套書寫系統仍然被不少苗民使用。他還設法改良當地風俗,引入各種體育、文化活動,使得石門坎這個偏遠苗寨一度成為中國西南部最為先進文明的地區之一。

1915年,石門坎地區流行傷寒,柏格理在照顧病人時不幸染病身亡。



Samuel Pollard (20 April 1864 in Camelford, Cornwall – 16 September 1915 in Weining, China), known in Chinese as Bo Geli (Chinese: 柏格理; pinyin: Bó Gélǐ) was a British Methodist missionary to China with the China Inland Mission who converted many of the A-Hmao (closely related to the Hmong) in Guizhou to Christianity, and who created a Miao script that is still in use today.Born the son of a Bible Christian Church preacher, Sam Pollard initially aimed for a career in the civil service. However, a conference in London in 1885 encouraged him to instead become a missionary. He was appointed a missionary in 1886, left the United Kingdom for China in 1887, and was posted to Yunnan province in 1888. He remained in China, as a missionary, until his death from typhoid.

In 1891 he was posted to a newly opened Bible Christian mission station in Zhaotong (referred to in contemporary sources in Wade–Giles as Chaotung), where he married Emmie Hainge. He began a Christian movement with the Big Flowery Miao in 1905 that spread to Zhaotong. Pollard also invented a script for the Miao languages called the Pollard Script (also sometimes called the "Ahmao script"). He credited the basic idea of the script to the Cree syllabary, "While working out the problem, we remembered the case of the syllabics used by James Evans, a Methodist missionary among the Indians of North America, and resolved to do as he had done". He also gave credit to a non-Miao Chinese pastor, “Stephen Lee assisted me very ably in this matter, and at last we arrived at a system”.

Pollard never claimed any divine inspiration or vision in creating the script. Rather, he left a record of hard work, advice from others, and ideas from other scripts. At the beginning, he wrote, he “made an experiment in getting out a written language for the Miao”, even writing out some symbols in his diary. He credited the basic idea of the script to the Cree syllabary (discussed above), “While working out the problem, we remembered the case of the syllabics used by a Methodist missionary among the Indians of North America, and resolved to do as he had done”. He also gave credit to a Chinese pastor, “Stephen Lee assisted me very ably in this matter, and at last we arrived at a system”. In another document he wrote “Mr. Stephen Lee and I are attempting to reduce the Miao language to a simply system of writing. The attempt may succeed or it may end… stillborn”. He asked himself in his diary “How shall I manage to distinguish tones?” then later wrote how he had found the solution, adopting an idea from Pitman’s shorthand. In listing the phrases he used to describe the process of creating the script, there is clear indication of work, not revelation: “we looked about”, “working out the problem”, “resolved to attempt”, “assisted”, “at last we arrived at a system”, “adapting the system”, “we found”, “solved our problem”. In all of this, we see no hint of specific revelation or any vision, only intellectual labor. 

After Pollard's death in 1915, he was buried in the mountains near the Shimenkan mission station, contemporary Weining Yi, Hui, and Miao Autonomous County. The mission prospered for another 35 years until 1950, when the CCP ordered all English missionaries to cease proselytizing and leave the country. His grave and the county were closed to foreigners until 1995, when Xinhua announced that work had been taken to restore Pollard's tomb which they now declared to be a national monument.[

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