Is the theory of evolution science? 进化论是科学的吗?


-  二鱼  -

宇宙如何形成?人又是从何而来?圣从一开始,就叙述了上帝用六天造了天地万物, 并用泥土造人。但是,当今的科学家认为,宇宙是从大爆炸开始,经过一百三十亿年才逐漸形成;人是由单细胞,经过亿万年的偶然変异和自然选择,适者生存, 化而来。因此,多人认为,圣只不是一种仰,不符合科学,以相。只有才是事,是科学。 
 

究竟是不是科学?

评论是否科学,首先要知道什么是科学。

科学是事求是,沒有偏見的知。大英百科全种知不同于无知和錯誤知,但限于物世界及其現象。進化論屬自然科学,要用科学方法来研究并检验

科学方法有一定要求、步和範。首先,通过观察和实验来收集料,作出假,然后根据假行預,再经过各自独立的反复检验,如果都能合乎假,才能成立。如不能通过检验,就放棄或加以重新察、实验和修正。 
 

是否能合乎些要求? 
 

一、用科学方法无法察到或重复宇宙和人的起源

用科学方法研究的, 是可以察到的, 而且是可以重复和验证的。但是,宇宙和人的起源是歷史事件,只發生過一次,既無法觀察到,也不能重复。因此,是无法用科学方法来明或证实宇宙和起源的。例来,如果一个科学家現路旁一只手錶,他可以用科学方法,研究出它是由金屬、塑料和玻璃等构成齒、游承、条和錶売等。它的 功能是用以计时。他也可以得出只錶应该是由人设计和制造的结论,因自然界并不存在这样复雜的精密器,也不可能自行生成。但是,他却无法用科学方法来 知道何人设计,何人制造,以及何制造,除非在錶上有所彔。 
 

二、科学只承認能夠观察到的宇宙的物世界及其現象,论对观察不到的一概加以否認和排斥

局限于宙之,四維空之中,對于宇宙開始之前和宇宙之外的情况,以及可能存在的 四維時空之外的多維空間和灵界情况,科學是一無所知。犹如井底之蛙,坐井天,卻夜郎自大,不相井外還別有天地。即使在宇宙之不同的象,必须应 用相的适当工具。不能用耳来看,或用眼来听。也不能用察物世界的工具来察灵界世界。用網孔比小魚大的網来小魚,当然不到小魚,但不能因此就 那里沒有小魚。当今的科学认为,宇宙23%是暗物質, 73%是暗能量,科學目前還無法觀察到。科學可能觀察到的,僅佔宇宙的4%,而在這4% 中,科學所能認識到的,還不到1%于能夠观察到的,当然可以明其存在; 但未能察到的,却不应该否定其存在的可能。 
 

三、科学在不斷改變,只能代表當前的認識水平,并非絕对標凖

无人会否認,科学是在不断步。步代表什么?一是取得新的知識。本來不知道的,現在 知道了。本來做不到的,現在能做到了。二是修正錯誤。過去認為是正確的,現在認識提高了,發現過去有錯誤,于是加以改正。科學在不斷進步,也就是在不斷變 化。單就科學家對地球年齡的估計而言,由于在現生活中,并不存在任何化現階段像,以极时间来作为进化的基。随着人体构,尤其是 胞和DNA认识不断提高,化所需要的时间也愈来愈,地球年齡也愈来愈大,在十九世紀中葉只有二千萬年,二十世紀初為九千萬年,二十世紀中葉為三十 三億五千萬年,而目前則為四十五億年到五十億年。在短短的一百多年中,相差竟達數十億年之譜。這些數據,在當時看來,都被認為是正確的科學結論;但以當今 的科學認識看,當然都是不正確的,只有目前的數據才正確。而學校的教科書,科學文章和媒體的報道,卻無不以此為根據, 動輒千百萬年。但誰又能保證,若干年後,今天的數據也變為不正確呢?因此,科學只能代表當前的認識水平,而不能用作衡量事物正確與否的對標凖。 
 

四、同一事物可以有不同介

既然宇宙和人的起源不能直接用科学方法来决定,就只能搜尋据,加以分析和推 理。但同一事物,在沒有完全了介之前,往往可以有不同介。例如有二个人面貌非常相似,通常的介是二人应该有親屬关係。但是,也常常有面貌相似却完全 沒有親屬关係,而双胞胎却又面貌完全不相似的情况。人物在解剖构上的相似性,可以被介释为同源化而來,也可被介释为由同一设计设计而成。有不 同意見本来是正常現象,但应该让各种意見充分表达,相互比,才能作出比正确的介。而当今的科学卻只承認,完全排斥其他的介,連在学校和在科 学期刋上討都不容許。就不是正确的科学度。 
 

五、科学的介可以有偏見和錯誤

如果科学家是根据不正确的假設,或了自己的利益,已有了先入主的偏見 (Bias),有意无意地选择对自己有利的介,摒棄和自己不利的介,就会得出不正确的结论了避免偏見,在臨床研究中,必须应用双盲 (Double Blind) 法,即研究者和被研究者都不知道所用的是葯物還是安慰(Placebo),才能得不受偏見影响的结论。不幸的是,当前的科学界对进却預先設定界 限,收集到的料所作的介,都必把超自然的作用完全排除在外,且必与数十億年的化理相符合。否会受到排甚至失去工作。这样得出的结论,当 然不会正确。 
 

六、缺乏科学

论对生命如何起源,无法介。达尓文在他的物种起源一書中此亦避而不。各种生 物都如聖,各从其,并无渡型。达尓文承认进程中的段的化石為缺失的環,至今仍然缺如。器官例如眼球的化,至今也只是瞎猜 想,毫无科学据。随着科学的展和DNA认识,不但更以介釋,而且在统计学上已屬不可能。英国一位著名的无神Flew 教授,相信进50年之久,并有多种著作。但经过对生命的复性作科学察之后,于2004年承,一个有功能的活胞的所有部件,必 在,不可能由自然程碰巧生。生生命所需要的如此复的安排,必然有某种智慧力量参与。是生命和宇宙起源的唯一介,科学据也支持一理,因 此,他决定上帝竟存在。 
 

七、科学家会弄虛作假

由於進化論缺乏證據,就千方百計地尋找根據。也有一些科学家了名利而作实报告,抑甚至排除自己不利的果。在得不到自己有利的,甚至弄虛作假。已被證明造假的有很多,下面只是最著名的幾個例子。

- 只靠一顆牙齿,就可憑藝家的想像力,創造出尼布拉斯加(Nebraska)人甚至其家人的全貌,到処展覽,并收入敎科書中多年,還是一顆猪的牙齿

- 皮爾當(Piltdown)人曽被鑒定有五十萬年之久,但後經證明係由現代黑猿的下頜骨和人的顱骨拚凑而成,還用藥水泡過,牙齒銼過來造假。

- 胚胎同源一直是進化論的主要據之一。黑格爾(Hackel)的從魚類、兩捿類、禽類、哺乳類到人的早期胚胎圖長期以來一直被放在教科書中,以顯示其相似 性。實際上,早在一百多年前,黑格爾就已被揭并承認他是造假。不但把不相似的畫成相似,其大小甚至可相差十倍之多。奇怪的是,這幅圖郤在發現造假後還一 直被放在教科書中長達一百多年,作為進化的證據。

- 黑白蛾的變化,也是教科書中進化論的經典之一。跟據進化論的法,英國捿息在樹幹上的白色班點蛾在十九世紀中葉以後,由於工業革命造成空氣汚染,使樹幹變 黑,以致白蛾易被鳥吃掉,剩下的就多是黑蛾。但到1950年以後,空氣汚染减少,樹幹變白,又變成以白蛾為主。這圖也一直被放在教科書中,作為自然選擇的 證據。事實上,這種蛾只在夜間才捿息,但不在樹幹上。樹幹上的蛾是人為放上去的。即使有這種變化,也只是種變異,並非種間進化。

-1999年,著名的國家地理誌刋登了从中國來的被称為恐尨鳥的缺失的中间环节化石,使学者大。可惜不久即被是一件假,是用鳥的前半身和恐尨的后半身拚接而成。该杂誌不得不行更正,但只用了很小而不起眼的字体道。 
 

由上可見,并不符合科学的要求,不能祘学。即使是科学本身,也有其局限性和 不完全性,且受人偏見的影响,可有錯誤,因而不能用作衡量事物正確與否的對標凖。反,数千年来絲毫不變,卻与科学并无矛盾,始正确。其超乎科 学之上之處,科学也不能加以否定。科学只能現、察和用自然定律,但不能介釋和改自然定律,但造宇宙万物和科学的上帝卻能。愛因斯坦曾有些 人认为宗教不合乎科學道理。我是一个研究科學的人,我深切知道,今天的科學只能明某种物体的存在,而不能明某种物体的不存在。孰是孰非,不可知

 

 

Where did the universe and human being come from?  The Bible tells us from its first verse that God created the universe and everything, including forming man from the dust of the ground, in six days.  However, contemporary scientists say the universe started from a Big Bang and formed gradually over thirteen billion years; human being evolved from a single cell through mutation, natural selection and survival of the fittest over hundreds of million years.  Hence, some people believe that the Bible is only a book of religion, it does not accord with science and cannot be trusted.  Only evolution is science. 

Is evolution really science?

To judge whether it is science or not, one should know what science is first.

Science is using scientific method to achieve evidence-based knowledge without bias and/or cheating.  The Encyclopaedia Britannica differentiates science from ignorance and error knowledge, but limited it to the material world and its phenomenon only. 

Scientific methods demand specific requirements, process and scope.  First, collect data by observation and experimentation to formulate hypothesis.  Then, make predictions based on the hypothesis.  Independent testing must be conducted against the hypothesis.  If the predictions are proven true through repeat testing and confirmation, then the hypothesis can become a theory.  If not, the hypothesis has to be discarded or revised. A revised hypothesis must go through the whole cycle, observation, experimentation and testing, all over again.

Does evolution fulfill all these requirements?

If evolution belongs to natural science, it must be studied and tested by scientific methods.  However, the origin of the universe and human race was a historical event.  It happened only once, was not observed and cannot be repeated.  Hence, evolution cannot utilize scientific method to achieve few, if any, demonstrable truths or observable facts.  For example, if a scientist found a wristwatch at roadside he can use scientific methods to find out that the gear, gossamer, bearing, spring and watch case are made of metal, plastic and glass and the function of the watch is chronometry.  He can also come to the conclusion that it was designed and made by human being because such a complex and delicate device does not exist naturally or cannot be produced by itself.  Apart from this, he cannot use scientific method to determine that it was designed and made by whom and when, unless such information was recorded on the watch.

Science only recognizes the observable material world and its phenomenon within the universe.  Evolution denies and rejects all that cannot be observed by scientific methods.

Human being is bounded by the 4-dimensional time/space universe.  Science knows nothing beyond our universe, the spiritual world and the possible existence of other multi-dimensional space.  It is like a frog in a well, looking to the sky, arrogantly saying that there is no other world beyond the well. 

Even within a given universe, to observe different objects requires the appropriate instruments.  It is impossible neither to see with ear nor to listen with eye.  It is also impossible to observe the spiritual world using the material instrument, thus cannot conclude that there is no spiritual world.

While net fishing small fish, if the net hole is larger than the fish, then obviously the small fish would never be caught.  Not being able to catch small fish cannot prove that there is no small fish.  Modern science claims that there are 23% dark matter and 75% dark energy within the universe that science cannot observe.  Science can observe only 4% of the universe.  Within this 4%, what science recognized is merely its 1%.  Science can prove the existence of the observable, yet cannot, and should not, deny the existence of the unobservable.     

Since science is changing progressively, it can only represent the current knowledge, thus science is not an absolute true and standard.

No one will deny that science is continuously improving.  What does improvement represent?  First, it is achieving new knowledge.  The previously unknown becomes known; the impossible becomes possible.  Second, it is correcting previous errors.  After gaining more knowledge, things that previously thought correct have now be proven  wrong and need to be corrected.  Hence, science is changing because it is continuously advancing.

For example, regards to scientific estimation of earth’s age. Since evolutional process cannot be observed in practical life, evolution requires very long period of time for its theoretical foundation.  Following the improved knowledge of human body structure, especially the complicated cell and DNA, the time needed for evolution is getting even longer.  The age of the earth estimated by scientists is also adjusted to be older and older.  It used to be 20 million years old in mid-19th century, 90 million years in early 20th century, 3.35 billion years in mid-20th century and 4.5 to 5 billion years as of now.  The age estimation has increased by four billion years within the span of a century.  The age of the earth was regarded to be correct at each time period and was published in textbooks, scientific literatures and media reports as a fact but was later revised a few decades.  Who knows, today’s data will become incorrect as well after a few decades or even few years?  Hence, science can only represent current level of knowledge, cannot be used as an absolute standard to judge the correctness of everything.

Same object may get different interpretation.

Since the origin of universe and human being cannot be directly proven by scientific methods, the only way is to search for indirect evidence with logical analysis and inference.

When observing a same object, before this object is fully understood, it is common that different opinions are formed.  For instance, two similar looking people are frequently considered as relatives, even siblings.  Yet they may have no blood relation at all.  On the other hand, twins may look totally different.  GODISNOWHERE can be interpreted as “God is nowhere”, but it can also be “God is now here” with opposite meanings. The anatomical similarity between human and animal may be interpreted as evolved from the same ancestor, or created by the same designer and/or creator.  It is normal for different peoples to have different opinions; their ideas should be fully expressed and compared to establish a correct answer.  However, the contemporary science only recognizes evolution, totally rejects other interpretation, even not allowing to discussion in school or scientific journal.  This is not a correct scientific attitude. 

Evolution lacks of scientific evidence.

Evolution cannot explain the origin of life.  Darwin avoided talking this subject in his book The Origin of Species.  All the living creatures are created after their kind without transition just as the Bible said.  Darwin admitted that the fossil of transitional stage during evolutional process is the missing link; it is still missing even now.  For the complicated organ, such as the eye, the evolution hypothesis is still lacking of scientific evidence.  Facing the development of science and understanding of DNA, it is not only more difficult to explain, but also statistically impossible.

A renowned British Atheist Professor Flew believed in evolution for 50 years and had numerous publications of evolution.  However, after observing the complicated life scientifically, he admitted that all the parts of a functional living cell have to exist at the same time.  It is impossible that such complicated arrangement of life was accidentally produced by a natural process; it has to be involved by certain intelligent force.  This is the only explanation for the origin of life and universe and is also supported by scientific evidence.  Hence, he decided that God does exist.

Scientists may have bias, errors and frauds.

 

Science needs scientists to explain.  If the scientist has basis built on an incorrect hypothesis or has his own benefit in mind, he may have errors and/or bias and thus intentionally or unintentionally promote the explanation that is beneficial to him, while suppress other opposing theories.  This would lead to incorrect conclusion.  In clinical pharmaceutical study a gold standard of research design, the double blind controlled study where neither the researcher nor the participant knows if the sample is medicine or placebo, must be used in order to achieve an unbiased conclusion.  Unfortunately, while explaining the collected data, the contemporary scientific world presets the guideline to match the billions of years’ evolution theory and to totally rule out the supernatural intervention.   If a scientist does not follow this guideline, he will be supplanted or even fired. 

Since it is difficult to find evidence for evolution, some scientists manipulate data making deceptive reports, suppress or exclude unfavorable results for their own reputation and advantage.  If the favorable results cannot be achieved, they even fake the report.  The following are only some examples of proven frauds. 

Based on only one tooth, with the help of artists’ imagination, it became the Nebraska man and his family.  They were depicted as the missing link  in the textbook and exhibition all over the world for many years.  Finally, the tooth was identified as belonged to an extinct pig.

The Piltdown man was a grand hoax!  It was identified as the 500 million years old missing link.  However, forty years later, it was proved to be a combination of modern human skull cap and chimpanzee lower jaw.  The teeth had been filed and the fragments stained. 

Recapitulation, or embryonic similarities, always is one of evolution’s main basis.  Hackel made a chart in 1868 showing that there were similarities among early embryos of fish, reptiles, birds, mammal and people and was quoted in textbooks as evolutional evidence.  He was soon charged with fraud and admitted that he changed their shapes and sizes up to 10 times to make them look alike.  Unbelievable, after he admitted the fraud, his chart is still in the textbooks for more than hundred years, even recently.     

The change of pepper moth is also a classic of evolution.  According to evolution, after mid-19th century, due to the industrial revolution, the atmosphere in England was polluted and turned the tree trunk into black.   The white pepper moth that stayed on the tree trunk was easily seen and eaten by birds and the black pepper moth survived.  After 1950, air pollution improved.  The tree trunk returned white and the white pepper moth became dominant again.  This black/white pepper moth picture was in the textbook for years as the evidence of natural selection.  In fact, this kind of moth rests only at night but not on the tree trunk.  The moth on the tree trunk was pinned to the tree purposely.  Even if such change happens, it is variation within kind, not evolution.    

In 1999, the renowned magazine National Geography published the so called missing link of evolution, a “dinosaur bird” fossil, from China.  This discovery greatly encouraged the evolutionists.  Unfortunately, it was proven a hoax.  The fossil was spliced by half bird and half dinosaur.  The magazine had to make correction later but printed in very small letters.  

As shown above, evolution does not meet the requirements of science and is not science.  Even science itself has limitations, incompletion and errors and can be affected by prejudice.  Hence, it cannot be used as an absolute truth and standard to judge if something is correct or not.  On the other hand, the Bible maintains its correctness for thousands of years with no change and still has no conflict with science.  It is superior than science yet science cannot deny it.  Science can only discover, observe, and apply natural laws.  It cannot further explain why or change the natural laws; only God who created the entire universe and natural laws can.  Einstein used to say: “Some people think that religion is not in line with scientific truth. I am a man of science research, I deeply know that today's science can only prove the existence of some kind of object, but cannot prove the absence of certain things.”.  Hence, need not to say, whether evolution is science or not is self-evident.

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